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                       作者:蕭三匝   知識分子與權力之間應該保持一種怎樣的關系?擁抱還是抵制?這不是一個有標準答案的問題。在專制社會,知識分子只
    來源:讀者網 作者:讀者 評論 快捷投稿

                       作者:蕭三匝
      知識分子與權力之間應該保持一種怎樣的關系?擁抱還是抵制?這不是一個有標準答案的問題。在專制社會,知識分子只能是依附者;在民主社會,知識分子已經走下圣壇,擁抱還是抵制權力成了一個偽問題。最需要回答這個問題的是轉型社會的知識分子。比如,民國時期,袁世凱復辟帝制在前,“一個領袖,一種主義”的鼓吹在后。在這樣的混沌時代,知識分子何以自處?

      魯迅的選擇是跟當局對著干,直到死,他還“一個都不寬恕”。但不可否認的是,魯迅的批判大于建設,他深刻但不明晰,他并沒有給混沌的時代指明方向。

      蔣廷黻、翁文灝的選擇是加入政府,改造政府。 在他們這些“好政府主義”的實踐者看來,與其痛恨黑暗、批判黑暗,不如沖進黑暗,做一個燃燈者。這些人善良、熱忱、能干、不同流合污,但“好政府主義”的幼稚注定了他們試圖改造政府的努力終將失敗。呼啦啦大廈將傾,又豈是幾個知識分子出身的好官支撐得了的?

      胡適的選擇很特別,他在大方向上不反對國民黨政權,但他終生不愿當官,他看重的是知識分子獨立發表見解的權利。他寧愿“為國家做一個諍臣,為政府做一個諍友”,而拒絕加入政府。他有意識地承擔起了啟蒙思想家的責任。從《新青年》《努力周報》到《獨立評論》,再到《自由中國》,胡適辦了一輩子雜志。

      在一個官本位的社會里,一再拒絕最高當局的延攬是需要勇氣的。要知道,早在1933年,汪精衛就曾邀請胡適出任教育部部長;1947年到1948年,蔣介石先是邀請胡適出任國府委員兼考試院院長,后又邀請他參加總統競選或出任行政院院長,但都被他婉拒了。試問,有幾個讀書人能頂得住如此誘惑?

      胡適的選擇被政治反對派解釋為“小罵大幫忙”。但何為“小罵”?胡適在1929年國民黨如日中天的時候就接連批評孫中山的訓政思想,稱國民黨宣傳部部長葉楚傖是“反動分子”,惹得國民黨上下一片討伐,并組織出版了《評胡適反黨義近著》,教育部部長還下達了對他的警告令,這是“小罵”嗎?1953年到1954年,胡適不斷發表文章向政府爭取言論自由,以至于后來蔣經國控制的“國防部總政治部”印發了《向毒素思想總攻擊》的小冊子,詆毀胡適是共產黨的“幫兇”,這是“小罵”的結果嗎?1960年,《自由中國》發行人雷震以“涉嫌叛亂罪”被臺灣當局逮捕當天,胡適就復電“副總統”陳誠,直言當局此舉“恐將騰笑世界”,這又是“小罵”嗎?

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