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      古羅馬政治家、演說家西塞羅有感于兩次布匿戰爭,驚呼“誰控制了海洋,誰就控制了世界”。貌似簡單的一句話,中國這樣一個習慣于農業耕作的民族,卻花了千年時間來參悟

      古羅馬政治家、演說家西塞羅有感于兩次布匿戰爭,驚呼“誰控制了海洋,誰就控制了世界”。貌似簡單的一句話,中國這樣一個習慣于農業耕作的民族,卻花了千年時間來參悟。南中國海——中國古人習慣稱之為千里長沙、萬里石塘,是中國海洋意識覺醒的見證和縮影。

      明清:寸板雖難下海

      巡視尤未敢忘

      明朝鄭和七下西洋,無論目的地是哪里,船隊往返均必經南海諸島。《鄭和航海圖》中,記載有七洲和萬里石塘。隨船的費信所著《星槎勝覽》,亦提到七洲洋和昆侖洋,即西沙群島和南沙群島。

      整個明代,倭寇海患不絕。為了安定南海,正德七年(1512年),海南島萬州設海防營,巡邏海域包括“萬州東長沙(今中沙群島)、石塘(今南沙群島)”。又有記載說,明代海南衛“統兵萬余”,巡邏了“海道幾萬里”。明代的海防力量追擊海寇時,就遠達西沙、南沙群島。

      清代沿襲了前朝定期巡邏南海諸島的海防制度。康熙末年,廣東水師副將吳陞親自巡視南海諸島。“自瓊崖,歷銅鼓,經七洲洋,四更洋,周遭之千里,躬自巡視,地方寧謐。”清人繪制的各種地圖、海防圖中,南海皆有清晰標注。

      晚清:帝國雖病入膏肓

      收復東西沙亦不辭

      1901年,一個名叫西澤吉次的日本商人駕船駛往臺灣,途中遇風浪偏離了航向,途經一座落滿鳥糞的島嶼,船員覺得好奇,就采了些島沙。到臺灣后,西澤拿去化驗,發現里面含磷質,是上好肥料。次年,西澤親自探尋了那座落滿鳥糞的小島,采回島沙和海產投放臺灣市場,賺得了來自東沙島意林雜志在線閱讀的第一桶金。從此,西澤對東沙島胃口大增,欲罷不能。

      1907年,籌備已久的西澤帶著建筑物資和100多號工人,強行占領東沙島。他拆毀了島上中國漁民所筑之大王廟、兄弟所,驅趕漁民,甚至將埋葬于此的漁民骨骸焚燒拋棄人海。他還懸掛日本旗,豎木牌,改島名為“西澤島”,暗礁則稱“西澤礁”。

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