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      據不完全統計,蘇聯和俄羅斯核潛艇從20世紀50年代至今,共發生事故120多起,美國海軍有8艘潛艇因事故沉沒或退出現役。  1963年4月10日,美核潛艇“長尾鯊”號沉沒海底,1

      據不完全統計,蘇聯和俄羅斯核潛艇從20世紀50年代至今,共發生事故120多起,美國海軍有8艘潛艇因事故沉沒或退出現役。

      1963年4月10日,美核潛艇“長尾鯊”號沉沒海底,129名艇員全部遇難,釀成世界潛艇史上最大的悲劇。2000年8月,俄羅斯“庫爾斯克”號核潛艇發生事故沉沒,艇上118人全部遇難。所有這些都將世人目光聚集到同一主題上:潛艇救生。

      “求人不如求己”,快速漂浮受青睞

      當潛艇沉沒后,如果水深壓力超過潛艇耐壓殼體的強度,外殼就會裂開,艇員會很快死亡。但如果外殼保持不變,艇員還有生還的機會。

      從各國海軍的普遍做法來看,艇員逃生主要分三步進行:首先啟動應急程序,組織艇員疏散到安全地帶。潛艇出事時,首先對艇員產生威脅的是透水、著火以及隨之而來的有毒煙霧,此時,艇員應立即向靠近救生裝置的艙室集中,封閉各艙門,阻止火、水及毒氣蔓延,啟動制氧系統,保證人的正常呼吸。

      第二,指揮官迅速向外發出求救信號,通報當前坐標位置。同時,釋放潛艇的水下浮標呼救系統,自動發出求救信號。

      第三,迅速組織自救,方法主要有以下3種:

      首先是利用漂浮式救生艙逃生。漂浮式救生艙內有艇員生命保障系統,一次可容納多人。潛艇失事時,艇員進入救生艙,然后與艇體分離,靠救生艙自身浮力浮出水面。

      這一逃生方法的優點是,艇員一般未受高壓暴露,獲救后不必作減壓處理。缺點是容積有限,由于會削減潛艇總體強度,不能大量安裝。

      第二種潛艇自救方法是用魚雷發射器將人“發射”到安全地帶。20意林電子版世紀80年代,秘魯一艘潛艇與漁船相撞,沉到33米海底,22名水兵迅速穿戴減壓脫險裝具,依次從魚雷管中逃生,到達海面時,除一人腦出血外,其他人都安然無恙。但對于深度更大的失事潛艇,這種方法由于速度較快,極可能損傷耳膜而很少使用。

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